Today, Earth seems to be the perfect example of habitable planets. But billions of years ago, Earth had a toxic atmosphere similar to the “hell” planet Venus. Some studies and geological evidence show that about 4.5 billion years ago, the Earth was completely covered by magma originating from volcanic eruptions. In this study, scientists conducted a series of experiments to determine the type of atmosphere Earth had when oceans of magma flowed across the planet’s surface. To simulate the early atmospheric conditions of the Earth, scientists focused on the element oxygen and how it interacts with other elements.
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